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Rio Tinto Group increased the capacity of its boron plant from , tonnes per year in to , tonnes per year by May , with plans to grow this to , tonnes per year in Chinese boron producers have been unable to meet rapidly growing demand for high quality borates.
The rise in global demand has been driven by high growth rates in glass fiber , fiberglass and borosilicate glassware production.
A rapid increase in the manufacture of reinforcement-grade boron-containing fiberglass in Asia, has offset the development of boron-free reinforcement-grade fiberglass in Europe and the USA.
The recent rises in energy prices may lead to greater use of insulation-grade fiberglass, with consequent growth in the boron consumption.
Roskill Consulting Group forecasts that world demand for boron will grow by 3. The highest growth in demand is expected to be in Asia where demand could rise by an average 5.
Nearly all boron ore extracted from the Earth is destined for refinement into boric acid and sodium tetraborate pentahydrate. Boron is added to the glass as borax pentahydrate or boron oxide, to influence the strength or fluxing qualities of the glass fibers.
Boron fibers boron filaments are high-strength, lightweight materials that are used chiefly for advanced aerospace structures as a component of composite materials , as well as limited production consumer and sporting goods such as golf clubs and fishing rods.
Boron fibers and sub-millimeter sized crystalline boron springs are produced by laser -assisted chemical vapor deposition. Translation of the focused laser beam allows production of even complex helical structures.
Fiberglass is a fiber reinforced polymer made of plastic reinforced by glass fibers , commonly woven into a mat.
The glass fibers used in the material are made of various types of glass depending upon the fiberglass use. These glasses all contain silica or silicate, with varying amounts of oxides of calcium, magnesium, and sometimes boron.
The boron is present as borosilicate, borax, or boron oxide, and is added to increase the strength of the glass, or as a fluxing agent to decrease the melting temperature of silica , which is too high to be easily worked in its pure form to make glass fibers.
The highly boronated glasses used in fiberglass are E-glass named for "Electrical" use, but now the most common fiberglass for general use.
Other common high-boron glasses include C-glass, an alkali-lime glass with high boron oxide content, used for glass staple fibers and insulation, and D-glass, a borosilicate glass , named for its low D ielectric constant.
Not all fiberglasses contain boron, but on a global scale, most of the fiberglass used does contain it. Because the ubiquitous use of fiberglass in construction and insulation, boron-containing fiberglasses consume half the global production of boron, and are the single largest commercial boron market.
Schott AG 's "Duran" and Owens-Corning 's trademarked Pyrex are two major brand names for this glass, used both in laboratory glassware and in consumer cookware and bakeware , chiefly for this resistance.
Several boron compounds are known for their extreme hardness and toughness. Boron carbide is a ceramic material which is obtained by decomposing B 2 O 3 with carbon in an electric furnace:.
Boron carbide's structure is only approximately B 4 C, and it shows a clear depletion of carbon from this suggested stoichiometric ratio.
This is due to its very complex structure. The substance can be seen with empirical formula B 12 C 3 i.
The repeating polymer plus semi-crystalline structure of boron carbide gives it great structural strength per weight.
It is used in tank armor , bulletproof vests , and numerous other structural applications. Boron carbide's ability to absorb neutrons without forming long-lived radionuclides especially when doped with extra boron makes the material attractive as an absorbent for neutron radiation arising in nuclear power plants.
Nuclear applications of boron carbide include shielding, control rods and shut-down pellets. Within control rods, boron carbide is often powdered, to increase its surface area.
Boron carbide and cubic boron nitride powders are widely used as abrasives. Boron nitride is a material isoelectronic to carbon. Similar to carbon, it has both hexagonal soft graphite-like h-BN and cubic hard, diamond-like c-BN forms.
Its hardness is only slightly smaller than, but its chemical stability is superior, to that of diamond. Heterodiamond also called BCN is another diamond-like boron compound.
Metal borides are used for coating tools through chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition. Implantation of boron ions into metals and alloys, through ion implantation or ion beam deposition , results in a spectacular increase in surface resistance and microhardness.
Laser alloying has also been successfully used for the same purpose. These borides are an alternative to diamond coated tools, and their treated surfaces have similar properties to those of the bulk boride.
For example, rhenium diboride can be produced at ambient pressures, but is rather expensive because of rhenium. The hardness of ReB 2 exhibits considerable anisotropy because of its hexagonal layered structure.
Its value is comparable to that of tungsten carbide , silicon carbide , titanium diboride or zirconium diboride.
Borax is used in various household laundry and cleaning products,  including the " 20 Mule Team Borax " laundry booster and " Boraxo " powdered hand soap.
It is also present in some tooth bleaching formulas. Sodium perborate serves as a source of active oxygen in many detergents , laundry detergents , cleaning products , and laundry bleaches.
However, despite its name, "Borateem" laundry bleach no longer contains any boron compounds, using sodium percarbonate instead as a bleaching agent.
Boric acid is used as an insecticide, notably against ants, fleas, and cockroaches. Boron is a useful dopant for such semiconductors as silicon , germanium , and silicon carbide.
Having one fewer valence electron than the host atom, it donates a hole resulting in p-type conductivity. Traditional method of introducing boron into semiconductors is via its atomic diffusion at high temperatures.
However, after the s, it was mostly replaced by ion implantation , which relies mostly on BF 3 as a boron source. Examples are the plasma deposition of boron-containing hard carbon films, silicon nitride-boron nitride films, and for doping of diamond film with boron.
Boron is a component of neodymium magnets Nd 2 Fe 14 B , which are among the strongest type of permanent magnet.
These magnets are found in a variety of electromechanical and electronic devices, such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI medical imaging systems, in compact and relatively small motors and actuators.
As examples, computer HDDs hard disk drives , CD compact disk and DVD digital versatile disk players rely on neodymium magnet motors to deliver intense rotary power in a remarkably compact package.
In mobile phones 'Neo' magnets provide the magnetic field which allows tiny speakers to deliver appreciable audio power.
Boron shielding is used as a control for nuclear reactors , taking advantage of its high cross-section for neutron capture.
In pressurized water reactors a variable concentration of boronic acid in the cooling water is used to compensate the variable reactivity of the fuel: Boric acid has antiseptic, antifungal, and antiviral properties and for these reasons is applied as a water clarifier in swimming pool water treatment.
Bortezomib marketed as Velcade and Cytomib. Boron appears as an active element in its first-approved organic pharmaceutical in the pharmaceutical bortezomib, a new class of drug called the proteasome inhibitors, which are active in myeloma and one form of lymphoma it is in currently in experimental trials against other types of lymphoma.
The boron atom in bortezomib binds the catalytic site of the 26S proteasome  with high affinity and specificity.
Tavaborole marketed as Kerydin is a Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase inhibitor which is used to treat toenail fungus. It gained FDA approval in July Dioxaborolane chemistry enables radioactive fluoride 18 F labeling of antibodies or red blood cells , which allows for positron emission tomography PET imaging of cancer  and hemorrhages ,  respectively.
MgB 2 wires are produced with the powder-in-tube process and applied in superconducting magnets. Amorphous boron is used as a melting point depressant in nickel-chromium braze alloys.
Hexagonal boron nitride forms atomically thin layers, which have been used to enhance the electron mobility in graphene devices. Boron is an essential plant nutrient , required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls.
However, high soil concentrations of greater than 1. Levels as low as 0. Nearly all plants, even those somewhat tolerant of soil boron, will show at least some symptoms of boron toxicity when soil boron content is greater than 1.
When this content exceeds 2. It is thought that boron plays several essential roles in animals, including humans, but the exact physiological role is poorly understood.
Boron supplementation markedly reduced urinary calcium excretion and elevated the serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone.
Institute of Medicine has not confirmed that boron is an essential nutrient for humans, so neither a Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA nor an Adequate Intake have been established.
Adult dietary intake is estimated at 0. What is absorbed is mostly excreted in urine. In , a hypothesis suggested it was possible that boron and molybdenum catalyzed the production of RNA on Mars with life being transported to Earth via a meteorite around 3 billion years ago.
There exist several known boron-containing natural antibiotics. The first one found was boromycin , isolated from streptomyces.
Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2 , a rare form of corneal dystrophy , is linked to mutations in SLC4A11 gene that encodes a transporter reportedly regulating the intracellular concentration of boron.
For determination of boron content in food or materials, the colorimetric curcumin method is used. Boron is converted to boric acid or borates and on reaction with curcumin in acidic solution, a red colored boron- chelate complex, rosocyanine , is formed.
Elemental boron, boron oxide , boric acid , borates, and many organoboron compounds are relatively nontoxic to humans and animals with toxicity similar to that of table salt.
Intakes of more than 0. Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide. The boranes boron hydrogen compounds and similar gaseous compounds are quite poisonous.
As usual, it is not an element that is intrinsically poisonous, but their toxicity depends on structure. Sodium borohydride presents a fire hazard owing to its reducing nature and the liberation of hydrogen on contact with acid.
Boron halides are corrosive. Boron is necessary for plant growth, but an excess of boron is toxic to plants, and occurs particularly in acidic soil.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Boron disambiguation. Not to be confused with element bohrium Bh or compound borium.
For the "quintessence" of classical philosophy, see Aether classical element. Boron deficiency plant disorder and Boron deficiency medicine.
Boron deficiency plant disorder. Allotropes of boron Boron deficiency Boron oxide Boron nitride Boron neutron capture therapy Boronic acid Hydroboration-oxidation reaction Suzuki coupling.
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Archived from the original PDF on 19 July Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Archived from the original on 8 December Separation Science and Technology.
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Archived from the original on 2 May Complex nanospherulites of zinc oxide and native amorphous boron in the Lunar regolith from Mare Crisium.
Explicit use of et al. Retrieved September 6, Industrial Minerals and Rocks 6th ed. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review.
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Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 28 May March Field Air Museum. Archived from the original on 4 March According to Hindu mythology, Devas Gods and Asuras Demons once decided to churn the ocean in order to get a special divine nectar.
This divine nectar also known as "Amrit" was known to give immortality to whoever drank it. All the Gods were on one side of it and the Demons were on the other end.
The Samudra Manthan produced a number of things from the Ocean. One of the first things to come out of it was lethal poison called Halahala.
Everyone was terrified as the poison was potent enough to destroy entire creation. So they went to Lord Shiva for protection and he consumed the poison to safeguard the universe.
Lord Shiva took the poison in his mouth but did not swallow it. Later some additional objects came out of the ocean like Lakshmi goddess of prosperity and beauty , Goddess of wine, Moon, divine Nymphs like Rambha- and Menakha, Uchhaishravas the divine seven headed White horse, Kaustubha a jewel, Parijata the celestial tree, Surabhi the cow of plenty, Airavata a white elephant, Dhanus a mighty bow and many more such things were produced.
Also, the sound of the conch is believed to drive away the evil spirits. The blowing of the conch or "the shankha " needs a tremendous power and respiratory capacity.
Hence, blowing it daily helps keep the lungs healthy. A newly wed Bengali bride wears bangles called Shakha Paula, made from coral and conch shell powder.
They have been a part of Bengali custom and tradition. It is believed that in ancient era, the Bengali farming community resided near the river.
They collected conch shells and powdered to create bangles. They also used red coral for the bangles. They gifted these beautiful bangles to their wives as they could not afford ivory bangles.
They were also known as poor man's ivory as they were cheap substitute for ivory bangles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the Indian Ritual Conch, see Shankha. For other uses, see Conch disambiguation. Further Observations on English Phonetics and Phonology.
A Natural Treasure of the Caribbean. The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Thames and Hudson , Common Banded Littorina sitkana.
Common Kellet's Knobbed Lightning Channeled. Mud-flat Korean mud Chorus giganteus. Cornu aspersum Helix lucorum Helix pomatia.
New Zealand arrow Japanese flying Humboldt Neon flying. Chiton magnificus Acanthopleura echinata Acanthopleura granulata.
Related topics Oyster farming Land snail farming Gastropod anatomy Bivalve anatomy. Retrieved from " https: Marine edible gastropods Commercial molluscs Strombidae Endangered animals Symbols Mollusc shells Mollusc common names.
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